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点击数:53502019/2/12 23:03:18 来源: 广东专插本辅导网

名词&代词

u Mary and Linda’s book

  Mary’s and Linda’s books.

u 人名+’s=某人的店铺,家庭,学校等地点。

I usually buy some meat at the Johnson’s.

They took part in the birthday party at Tom’s.

u of 所有格名词词组第二次出现时,用that/those 代替。

 The population ofNew Yorkis greater than that ofChicago.

 It seems that the students ofUSAare more active than those ofChina.

用砖头建的房子比用木头建的结实。

真题回顾

1. I respect Oprah’s opinion, but I would also like her to respect____.

     A. my own  B. mine’s   C. mine   D. me

2. ____ is a great pity that there are some disagreements in the school board meeting.

      A. That   B. This  C. It     D. There

3. We like our English teacher because she often tells ______ funny stories in class.

     A. us   B. our    C. we    D. ours

4. There are 40 teachers in this school , ten of whom are _____.

A.  man teachers        B. men teacher

C.  man teacher       D. men teachers

练习

1、          I don’t know _____ standing over there.

A.  the girl’s name  B. the name’s girl

C.   the name of the girl   D. the name’s of girl

2. Today’s libraries differ great from _______.

A.  the past   B. those of the past  C. that are past   D. those past

3. The police investigate the ______ about the bank robbery.

A.  stander-by  B. standers-by  C. stander-bys  D.standers-bys

主谓一致

1.两个或两个以上做主语的单数名词用and连接,谓语用复数.

Tom and Dick ___are____ (be) good friends.

但若表示一个集合体时则用单数。

A singer and dancer ___was___ (be) present at the party.

The worker and writer __is_ (be) talking to the students.

2.用 and 连接的两个名词若被 no, each, every, many a 修饰,则谓语动词用单数。

No bird and no beast ___is ____ (be) seen in the bare island.

Many a boy and many a girl ___has__ (have) made such a funny experiment.

At Christmas each boy and each girl ___is ___(be) given a present.

3. 两个主语由not only…but also, or, either…or, neither…nor 等连接时,谓语动词与第二个主语保持一致

Either he or I ___am__ (be) to go there.

__Are____ (be) either you or he going to attend the meeting?

4. 主语后有as well as, like, with, together with, but, except, besides,等,谓语应于前面主语保持一致.

A professor, together with some students, __was___ (be) sent to help in the work.

No one but the teachers __is___ (be) allowed to use the room.

5.一些集合名词做主语,如果看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数;如果指其中的成员,谓语用复数.

如audience, committee,class, crew, family, government, public等.

但people, police等只能用复数.

My family __ is ___ (be) a big family.

My family ____are_ (be) listening to the radio.

The police __ are __ (be) trying to catch the thief.

6.表示时间、重量、长度等名词,尽管是复数形式,但作为一个整体看,谓语还是用单数

Five minutes __ is __ (be) enough.

One dollar and seventy eight cents _ is _ (be) what she has.

7. all 作为主语,代表人物时,一般用作复数;代表整个事件或情况时,一般看作单数。

All that I want __ is ___ (be) a good dictionary.

All ___ were/are___ (be) silent.

人人都缄口无言。万籁俱寂。

All __ were/are ____ (be) out of danger.

8 形容词加定冠词 the  表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数。

 What a life the poor __ were __   (be) living!

 The young _ are __ (be) happy to give their seats to the old.

9.who, which, that 作定语从句的主语时,其谓语取决于先行词

Those who want to go should sign your names here.

l  He is one of the students who have passed the exam.

l   He is the only one of the students who has passed the exam.

10. 以-ics结尾的学科名称通常作单数.

physics(物理学)、

mathematics(数学)、

mechanics(机械学)、

politics(政治学)、

statistics(统计学)、

economics(经济学)等

11.还有一些以-s接的单、复数同形的名词,如: headquarters(总部), means(方法、手段), series(系列), species(种类), works(工厂)等,随后动词的单、复数形式取决于这些名称是作单数,还是用作复数。

A headquarters was set up to direct the operation (指挥作战).

The only means to achieve success is to appeal to arms (诉诸武力).

12.如果作主语的名词词组由分数(或百分数)+of-词组构成,其动词形式依of-词组中名词类别而定。

Over sixty percent of the city __was__ (be) destroyed in the war.

Thirty-five percent of the doctors __were____ (be)  women.

13.如果主语是all of ...,some of ...,none of ...,half of ...,most of ...等表示非确定数量的名词词组,其后的动词形式依of-词组中的名词类别而定。例如:

Most of the money __ was ___ recovered by Deputy Player.

Most of the members __ were_____ there.

All of the cargo ___ was ___ lost.

All of the crew ___ were____ saved.

14.如果主语是由“a kind/sort/type of ,this kind/sort/type of +名词”构成,动词用单数。

This kind of man annoys me.

但若在kind/sort/type之前的限定词是these/those,同时,of-词组中的名词又是复数,则动词用复数:

These kinds of men annoy me.

Those types/sorts of machines are up to date (最新的,最近的,现代的).

15. 1)由who, why, how, whether等wh-词引导的名词性分句作主语,其后的动词通常用单数

Who will be chosen to the Beijing is not decided.

2).两个由and连接的并列名词性分句作主语,如果主语表示两件事情,动词用复数。例如:

What caused the accident and who was responsible for it remain a mystery to us.

真题回顾

1. The educator and scholar        fromShanghai. (2003年真题)

A. come   B. comes   C. is coming   D. are coming

2. Many a ____ realized that this doesn’t make any sense. (2003年真题)

A. persons has           B. persons have  C. person has            D. person have

3. What they said _____ us much to think about. (2004年真题)

A. have left         B. has left         C. is left              D. are left

4. A doctor, along with a group of young nurses, __ going to demonstrate the heart operation process. (2005年真题)

A. is          B. are        C. will       D. shall

5. Neither of the employees nor the boss ____satisfied with the profits. (2006年真题)

A. were   B. was      C. be       D. been

6. The computer, working very fast, ___ data at the speed of light. (2007年真题)

A.  handles    B. handling   C. Handled    D. has handled

7. In the fall the cattle      from the high country back down to the farm. (2008年真题)

A.  is driven        B. are driven    C. drives       D. drive

8. When and where to hold the meeting ______ not decided yet. (2010年真题)

A.  is     B. are   C. has    D. have

9. After careful investigation we find that one of the statements _______ to be untrue.

A. is turned out     B. have been turned outC. has turned out   D. have turned out

10. How close parents are to their children ______ a strong influence on the character of their children. (2012年真题)

A. have   B. has  C. having  D. had

冠词

1. the +adj.

the unemployed

the poor/rich

the questioned

the struggled

the disadvantaged

the injured

The injured were taken to hospital for treatment.

the old

the young

The disadvantaged, including the disabled and the elderly need more care and support from the society.

2. 零冠词的使用

*    专有名词:Tiananmen Square

*    节假日:   New Year’s Day, May day, Christmas, April Fools’ Day  (中秋,端午例外)

*    杂志: News Week, Times, Reader’s Digest

*    一年四季:   spring, summer, fall/autumn, winter

3. 固定搭配及与冠词有关的表达

*    使用定冠词的表达

by the way

in the end

in the face of

in the future

in the world  究竟,到底

in the least 丝毫,一点

I don’t think you need to worry in the least.

我认为你一点都不用担心。

on the average

on the contrary

on the one hand, on the other hand

on the spot 当场,在现场

on the whole 总的来说

*    the day before yesterday

*    for the time being

*    at the cost of 以。。。为代价

*    More and more countries are developing their industries at the cost of environment.

*    to the extent of 到。。。程度

*    tell the truth

使用不定冠词的表达

    as a matter of fact, as a rule, have a chance, have a good time, have a say, have a try, keep an eye on, on a large scale, in a hurry, take a walk, take an interest in

不使用冠词的表达

 at noon/night/dawn, in front of, at bottom, in order,

 in public/private/danger/trouble/advance/sight/

 in fashion, in fact, at hand, at last, at present, day and night, on top of, take part in, take place

真题回顾

1The mother asked the boys to put ____ everything in ____ order before they left the room.(10)

A. the, a   B. an, the  C. /,a   D./,/

连词

一、连词属于虚词之一,它不能在句子里独立地担任句子成分,而只能起连接作用——连接词与词、短语与短语、句子与句子。

例如:

Would you like some tea or coffee ?

(连接词与词)您是喝茶,还是喝咖啡 ?

Do we have our meeting in the morning or in the afternoon ?

(连接短语与短语)

我们是上午开会,还是下午开会?

Do it carefully, or you’ll make some mistake.

(连接句子与句子)认真地干,不然会出差错的。

一、连词属于虚词之一,它不能在句子里独立地担任句子成分,而只能起连接作用——连接词与词、短语与短语、句子与句子。

例如:

Would you like some tea or coffee ?

(连接词与词)您是喝茶,还是喝咖啡 ?

Do we have our meeting in the morning or in the afternoon ?

(连接短语与短语)

我们是上午开会,还是下午开会?

Do it carefully, or you’ll make some mistake.

(连接句子与句子)认真地干,不然会出差错的。

二、连词主要可分成两类:

并列连词:

    用来连接平行对等(即互不从属)的词、词组、或分句。按其表示的不同意思有下面几种

1)表示转折意思

but , yet , however , nevertheless

2)表示因果关系

for , so , therefore , hence

3)表示并列关系

and , or , either…or , neither…nor , not only…but (also) , both…and , as well as

从属连词:

  是用来引起从句的,它在主句和从句中间起连接作用。具体地说,从属连词主要引起名词从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句)和状语从句,不会引起定语从句。

1. 引起名词从句的连词:that , whether , if

2. 引起状语从句的连词:

1)时间状语从句:when , whenever , as , while, before , after, until, till, since, ever since, once, as soon as, every time, the moment, instantly, directly

2)地点状语从句:where , wherever

3)原因状语从句:as, because, since, seeing (that) , considering (that) , now that , not that…but that

4)目的状语从句:that , so that , in order that , lest , for fear that , in case

5)结果状语从句:that , so … that , such … that

6)条件状语从句:if , unless , so/as long as,    so far as,   on condition (that ) ,provided ( that )

7)让步状语从句:though , although , no matter , even if , even though , however , whatever

8)比较状语从句:than , as

9)方式状语从句:as , as if , as though

真题回顾

1、We stored up some food and water ____ things got worse. 

A.even though  B. what if C.  now that        D. in case

2. We should learn from this lesson and consider the long-term influence of dams _______ the short-term benefits.

Arather than    B. owing to  C. because of       D. or else

3. Her hair was golden when she was a child, but it went darker _____ she grew up.

A. If   B. as   C. since  D. even

4. Call the university operator, ____ you will find the phone number of Professor Smith.

A. So  B. and   C. when   D. before

5. _____ its good performance, the machine is too expensive.

A.  Besides   B. Except for  

C. In spite of  D.  Apart from

6. You may write an e-mail to me or just phone me.  _____ will do.

A. Each   B. Either   C. Neither   D. None

7. ---Do you like pop music or country music?

    ---_____. I only like sports.

A. Each   B. Either   C. Neither  D. Both

8.   It was already ten o’clock in the evening _______ we arrived at the hotel.

A. since   B. while   C. that    D. when

9. _______ a change of weather, please take the coat with you.

A.  Because of   B. In spite of

C.  In case of     D. But for

写作

写作中常用的过渡词可以分为以下几类:

(1)表并列关系的过渡词:
 and, also, as well, as well as, or, too, not only…but also, both … and, either … or, neither…nor等。

 (2)表递进关系的过渡词:
 besides, in addition(加之,除……之外), moreover(此外,而且), what’s more, what’s worse等。

 (3)表转折对比的过渡词:
 but, however, yet, instead, on the other hand, on the contrary, although, different from, despite, in spite of, whereas, unlike, not only…but also, the former…the latter, the first… whereas the second, on the one hand … on the other hand, some…others等。

(4)表原因的过渡词:
 because, because of, since, as, for, now that, thanks to, due to, for this reason, owing to,  considering that, seeing that等。

(5)表结果的过渡词:
so, thus, therefore, as a result, so that, then, hence, so…that, such…that, accordingly等。

(6)表条件的过渡词:
 if, unless, on condition that, as/so long as等。

(7)表时间的过渡词:
 when, while, after, before, until, as soon as, later, afterwards, soon, lately, recently, since, from then on, eventually, in the meantime, then, suddenly, at the same time, next, early this morning / year / century, after a while, in a few days, now, presently, finally, at last, all of a sudden, form now on, at present, immediately, the moment等。

 (8)表特定的顺序关系的过渡词:
 first, firstly, second, secondly, third, thirdly, above all, first of all, then, next, finally, in the end, at last, afterwards(后来), meanwhile(几乎同时), thereafter(在那以后), last, finally, eventually(终于)等。

(9)表换一种方式表达的过渡词:
 in other words, that is to say, to put it another way等。

(10)表进行举例说明的过渡词:
 for instance, for example, take … as an example, namely, such as, like, in other words, that is to say, that is等。

(11)表陈述事实的过渡词:
 in fact, actually, as a matter of fact, to tell you the truth等。

(12)表强调的过渡词:
 certainly, indeed, above all, surely, most important, in fact, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, of course, actually, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly, absolutely等。

(13)表比较、对比的过渡词:
like, unlike, in the same way, similarly, be similar to, on the contrary, by contrast, on one hand…, on the other hand, otherwise 等。

(14)表目的的过渡词:
 for this reason, for this purpose, so that, in order to, so as to等。

(15)表总结的过渡词:
 in a word(总之,简言之), in general, in short(总之), generally speaking, to sum up, finally, in conclusionin summary, on the whole等。

(16)表增补的过渡词:in addition, furthermore, besides, moreover, what’s more等。

数词

一、基数词及其主要用法:

表示数目的词称基数词。

15

fifteen

242

two hundred and forty-two,

5058

five thousand and fifty-eight,

9,600,000 nine million six hundred thousand

1.基数词可以用于数字的计算。

*      6+8=14 Six plus eight is fourteen.

*      9-7=2  Nine minus seven is two.

*      7X5= 35 Seven times five is thirty-five.

*      8÷4=2 Eight divided by four is two.

2.基数词可以表示人的大致年龄和年代。

*      He died in his fifties.

*      This took place in 1990s/1990's.

*      The professor became successful in his thirties.

3.基数词可以用来表达年份、时间、电话号码。

*      1700

*    seventeen hundred

*      1814

*    eighteen fourteen

*      9:20

*    nine twenty

*      11:30

*    eleven thirty/ half past eleven

*      5:45

*    five forty-five/ a quarter to six

4.基数词可以用于编号。

*        Number six, line 4, page 19, Bus (No.) 332, Platform (No.) 5, Room 101

5.基数词可以和其他词一起构成合成形容词,在句子中作定语。

*    A one-month-old baby can recognize its mother by smell.

*    This eleven-month-old baby can speak a few words.

*    (The baby is eleven months old.)

*     The teacher asked us to write a four-thousand-word essay as our homework.

*     (There are four thousand words in the essay.)

*    This four-paragraph essay is too difficult for me to understand.

*     (There are four paragraphs in this essay. )

二、序数词及其主要用法

表示顺序的词称为序数词。如first, second, third, fourth, ninth, twenty-first, forty-fifth等。

序数词可以用来表示日期和世纪。May the first / the first of May(5.1), August the eighth / the eighth of August(8.8), the twentieth century, the twenty-first century

序数词在句子中前面一般加the

*      The first of October is our National Day.

*      She was the third to arrive.

序数词在句子中前面加不定冠词,表示"再一""又一"

*      They'll have to do it a second time.

*      Shall I ask him a third time?

*      When he sat down , a fourth man rose to ask.

三、分数词的构成

分数的分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示;

若分子大于1,分母需用复数。

*    two-thirds

*    (2/3),

*    one-third

*    (1/3),

*    nine-tenths (9/10),

*    (5/12)

*    five-twelfths

特殊表达法有:one half (1/2),a quarter (1/4), three quarters (3/4) 。

考试重点:

数词部分需特别注意dozen, hundred, million, billion

表示具体数字时,这些词用单数形式;

表示不具体的数字时,须用dozens of, hundreds of 这类的结构。

*     I want three dozen  eggs/ of these.

*     He has been there dozens of times.

例: It is reported that _____ people in this area were saved in the storm.

 A. hundred     B. hundred of   

 C. hundreds of        D. some    hundreds

当数词与名词构成合成形容词时,合成形容词中间若用连字符,则其中的名词须用单数形式。

*     The homework for the next period is to write a two-hundred-word composition about your hometown.

*     Mary is a eleven-year-old girl.

*     (Mary is eleven years old.)

1. It is ____ from my school to the railway station.

A.  two-hours walk  B. two-hour’s walk

C. two-hour walk    D. a two-hour walk

虚拟语气


例句:

1.表示与现在事实相反

If I had enough money now , I would lend it to you.

If I were you , I would go to tell him the real feeling upon him.

2.表示与过去事实相反

If he had taken your advice , he wouldn't have made such a bad mistake.

She would have come to enjoy the party if she hadn't been very busy.

3.表示与将来事实相反

I would go shopping with you if it were to be Sunday tomorrow.

 If he were to be given another chance to do it again, he could certainly achieve more.

考试可能会涉及:虚拟条件句的倒装

为了强调语气,虚拟条件句可用倒装结构。

   虚拟条件句的倒装是通过去掉if,把条件从句谓语中的助动词、情态动词或系动词放在句首实现的。

例如:

If I had been in that situation, I would not have let the thief escape away with so much money.

 Had I been in that situation, I would not have let the thief escape away with so much money.

Should there be a drought, what should we do at that time ?

 If there should be a drought, what should we do at that time ?

虚拟条件句 中的一些含蓄表达

有时假设的情况并不以条件从句的形式表现出来,而是通过某个介词或介词短语(如:otherwise, without, but for)、上下文或其它方式表现出来。

   这种句子称为含蓄条件句。

例如:But for the help from you , I would not have had the chance to go to college.

Without many teachers’ advice, I could not have passed the examination so quickly.

虚拟语气在从句中的运用

u 在某些词或短语后接的从句中要使用虚拟语气,表示愿望、建议或命令等。

u 根据虚拟语气的形式不同,可以分为“should”和“过去时态类”。

一、should类

这一类的虚拟语气是通过从句中的谓语动词使用“should +动词原形”体现出来的,should可以省略。其具体运用体现在:

1.在suggest , order, demand , propose,

   command, request, desire,insist等表示建议、命令、要求、意见的动词后接的宾语从句中要使用虚拟语气。

如:

ü  Mike suggests that Curie should leave the house at once.

ü The leader ordered that the taskshould be finished as soon as possible.

ü Jack proposed that we should deal with the problem by the view of development.

2.与suggest , order, demand , propose, command, request, desire,insist等动词相对应的名词suggestion, order, demand , proposal 等后的表语从句同位语从句中要使用虚拟语气。

   如:

ü  The general sent the order that the battle(should) be held on until the complete failure of the enemy.

ü  My proposal is that we(should) set a deadline for handing in the plan.

3.在It is/was suggested (ordered , demanded , proposed , etc. ) 结构以及necessary , essential, important, strange, natural等形容词后的主语从句中要使用虚拟语气。

 如:

It's requested that we (should keep the stability of the society for the people's peaceful life.

It is necessary that the badly wounded manshould be treated immediately.

虚拟语气在从句中的运用

二、过去时态类

   英语中,还有一些词或短语后接的从句或句子,也要使用虚拟语气,虚拟语气是通过句中的谓语使用过去的某种时态(如:一般过去时、过去完成时等)来体现的。

   1. wish would rather 后的宾语从句。

He wished he had never been involved in such affairs.

   Vivian wishes she could get the job soon.

   I would rather you could teach me again.

  2. It isabout/high time that…句型

It is time we went out for a walk.

It was high time they had begun to prepare the experiment.

     It is about time we gave up searching for the missing dog.

3. as if as though引导的从句。如:

The little boy knows so many things as if he was a man.

He acted as usual as though nothing had happened.

4.if only (要是……,那该多好啊!)引导的惊叹句。如:

If only I had passed the test !

If only it stopped raining!

真题回顾

•         Tom Smith wished that his parents _____ in the stricken area when the earthquake occurred.

•         A. were not               B. are not

•         C. have not been      D. had not been

•         The proposal that business companies _____guided by professionals for their new scheme of developments was accepted without disagreement.

•         A. be                         B. are

•         C. was                       D. were

•         Professor Wang said that he would rather his student Jane ____ to the conference.

•         A. go     B. went    C. gone    D. going

•         If I ____ a book on the habits of mice, I’d not start working without sufficient observation on them.

•         A. were to write    B. have written   

•         C. write                D. am writing

    _____, the police would have caught the criminal earlier.

•         A. Had they received the clue in time   

•         B. If they received the clue in time

•         C. They have received the clue in time  

•         D. Did they receive the clue in time

•         _______ the interference from the local residents, the delegation would have caught the train bound forEdinburgh.

•         A. Due to              B. Except for   

•         C. In case of        D. But for

•         All the participants believe that it is high time that the two neighboring countries ____ a fresh round of negotiation regarding the economic cooperation.

•         A. starting            B. started   

•         C. have started   D. being starting

•         The suggestion that colleges _______ administrated by professors was approved by the board.

•         A. is    B. are C. be D. were

•         The player asked he ___ an opportunity to explain his case.

•         A. gives            B. be given 

•         C. is given D. should give

•         The new findings by the research crew suggested that the government’s housing plans _____not practicable.

•          A. be       B. should be   C. was     D. were

•         The chairman insist that there___ a meeting to be held within the shortest possible time.

•         A. is    B. will be    C. was        D. be

•         My suggestion was that he ______ the offer as soon as possible.

•         A. should take                          B. takes

•         C. would take                          D. took

•         If all the people in the world spoke the same language, cultural and economic ties _____ be much closer among countries now.

•         A. will                               B. should

•         C. shall                               D. would

•          I wish I _____ in the sun by a swimming pool instead of sitting in this classroom.

•         A. have lain    B. were lying   C. lay    D. lie

•         It is essential that all the reports to be published _____ twice.

•         A. be checked      B. would be checked

•         C. were checked   D. will be checked

•         _____ for their support, he would have gone penniless.

•         A. If it is not       B. If it is

•         C. Were it           D. Were it not

•         I arrived late; I _____ the traffic to be so heavy this morning.

•         A. wasn’t expecting

•         B. wouldn’t expect

•         C. haven’t expected

•         D. hadn’t  expected

It is high time that the international community ______together to fight against terrorism.

A.  work  B  works  C. worked   D. working

The demand made by the workers is that their salaries ___to cover the increased cost of living.

A.  increased  B. be increased  C. be increasing   D. were increased

倒装句

u 英语句子通常有两种语序:

    陈述语序、倒装语序。

u 将谓语的一部分或全部置于主语之前的语序叫做倒装语序。

u 倒装可分为二种:将整个谓语提到主语之前的叫完全倒装;而只将be 、情态动词或者助动词放在主语之前的叫做部分倒装。

u 学位考试考察的重点是部分倒装。

部分倒装:

u (1)、Only在句首,修饰副词,介词词组或状语从句时

1.Only then did he find it important to get along with others.

2.Only in this way can we make great progress.

3.Only after he came back were you able to see him.

以关联连词not only...but also开首的句子或者分句也是如此。

Not only did they break into his office, but they also destroy his computer.

(2)、当句首状语为否定词或带有否定含义的词语时,常见的这类词或词语有not, never, hardly, seldom, rarely, scarcely 以及not until, no sooner...than, hardly...when, ...no...等。

1.Seldom had I seen such a beautiful picture.

2.Hardly had I arrived home when the phone rang.

3.Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 

4.At no time have I said such a thing.

u In no case _____ be late for the annual board meeting to be held next Friday.

A. should you                   B. you should

C. will you                        D. you will

u Not until the mid-1950s ____ most automakers begin offering seat belts as optional safety features.

  A. did        B. had      C. do     D. would

u No sooner____ the top of the mountain than it started raining cats and dogs.

A. did the climbers reached        B. the climbers reached

C. have the climbers reached       D. had the climbers reached

(3) 在省去if的虚拟条件从句中。

1.Should I be free this afternoon,I would come and help you with your lesson. (future)

2.Were I in your place. I would not be fit for your job.(present)

3.Had it not been for the captain, the ship would have sunk with all on board. (past)  

u ______, the police would have caught the criminal earlier.

A. Had they received the clue in time    B. If they received the clue in time

C. They have received the clue in time   D. Did they receive the clue in time

u As his advisor, I believe that he is bound to accomplish much at your university __he be admitted.

   A. might     B. whether   C. had            D. should

(4)So ...that的句型中。

So excited was he that he couldn't’t say a word.

So warm is the weather that we decide to go shopping.

u  Though I am always free on Sundays, I seldom watch television. _____ .

A. So does my sister                       B. My sister doesn’t

C. My sister is too                         D. Nor does my sister

u As a matter of fact, our life styles are changing and __ our bodies changing .

A. as such     B. so such      C. such as    D. so are

u 注意以下考点:

(5)当So位于句首,表示前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(或物)时。如:

Her mother is a warm-hearted old lady, so is mine.    

在So it is (was) with 的句型或者当So表示“的确如此,确实是这样”,以示同意和肯定某种说法,或者加以强调时,常常不引起倒装。

Li Ping studies hard, so he does.

因此我们常常可看到下列这类句子。

You say Tom went to the ball yesterday. So he did, and so did I.

(6) 当neither, nor位于句首,表示前面否定的内容也适用于另一人或物时
 “I didn't mean what I said, you know.”
 “Neither (Nor) did I”.

 John‘s not been to London, neither has Ben.

(7)用于“形容词(或名词、动词)”+as(though) 引导的让步状语从句中

Pretty as she is , she is not clever.

Try as he would, he might fail again.

Child as he was, he had to make a living.

注:从句的表语是名词,其名词前不加任何冠词

u ____, Bob still went on with the experiment.

A. As he was tired   B. As was he tired  C. Tired as he was  D. As tired as he

u 巧记倒装句 - 巧计倒装顺口溜

① NB 前倒后不, 

② O,NU 主倒从不倒,

③ 2N 前倒后也倒,

④ NM前后均不倒。

u ① NB代表Not only…,but also…引导的并列句。 not only位于句首时,所引导的前面的分句倒装,后面的分句不倒装。故此称为“前倒后不倒”。如:Not only did he come,but also he was very happy.

②O代表only+状语从句;NU代表Not until+状语从句。此两种结构位于句首时,倒装主句而不倒装从句,即:“主倒从不倒”。如:

1)Only when he told me did I know it.

2)Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.

No sooner…than…, Hardly/Scarcely…when…等句型也属此类用法。如:

No sooner(Hardly) had we reached home than(when)it began to rain.

③2N代表Neither…nor…所引导的并列句。2N若位于两分句之首,则前后分句均倒装。即“前倒后也倒”。如:

Neither do I know her name,nor does he.

④NM即No matter…引导的状语从句。此时前面从句及后面主句均不倒装。即“前后均不倒”。如:

No matter how busy he is,he always comes to help us.

练习:

1.─You like singing and dancing.
.
A. So do I   B. So I do  C.I do so  D. do I so

2.Her mother is a warm-hearted old lady .
A. So my mother is   B. So is my mother
C. Is my mother so    D. My mother so is

3. Not until sixteen to school.
A. he was;did he go  B. he was;he went

  C. was he;he did go    D. was he;went he

4. Hardly when it began to rain.
A. had he got home   B. he had got home
C. had got home he   D. he home had got

5. Little .
A. did I think of it   B. I thought of it
C. did think I of it   D. thought of it I

6. Never before in her life such beautiful and precious jewelry.
A. he saw     B. did he see C. has she seen    D. she has seen

7. So busy that he has no time to spare.

   A. he was  B. was he  C. he is D. is he

8. Only in this way .
A. we can well do it  B. can we well do it
C. we can do it well  D. can we do it well

非谓语动词

非谓语动词:不能单独作谓语的动词。

u 动词不定式

u 动名词

u 分词 (现在分词、过去分词)

动词不定式:

uI.构成:    肯定形式:to do

                 否定形式:not to do

u II. 用法:作主语,表语,宾语,宾语补足语,定语,状语

u 1. 作主语:

    e.g. To find those stamps is difficult.

            To learn English well is not easy.

u  注意1)通常将不定式放在后面,用 “it” 作形式主语放在句首。

   e.g. It is difficult to find those stamps.

          It is not easy to learn English well.

u  注意2)如果说明不定式表示的动作是谁做的,可在不定式前加“for/of + 名词或人称代词宾格”,构成不定式的逻辑主语。

e.g. It was difficult for him to leaveIndiaand to go to a foreign land.

        It was nice of you to help me.

        It is very kind of you to say so .

u 注意3

u 采用FOR的是与事物有关的非人称形容词。

   possible, impossible, important, easy, hard, useless, necessary, essential, convenient, difficult…

  采用OF的是与人有关的赞美,批评等品质形容词:nice, kind, wise, good, polite, right, clever, bad, wrong, cruel, stupid, foolish, impolite…

u 2.作表语

  e.g. Her wish is to become a doctor.

u 3.作宾语

  e.g. We decided to discuss the problem at once.

         At last she had managed to get the papers she needed.

u 4.作宾语补足语

  e.g. The teacher expected us to carry out the task ahead of time.

  I want you to go with me.

u注意4)在make, let, have, see, watch, hear, feel, notice, observe, 等使役动词和感官动词后,宾补中的TO必须省略。Help 后的TO可省可不省。

   e.g. I saw her walk into a tea-shop.

          Let me try.

          she helped the old man (to) do his homework.

u5.作定语:(放在所修饰的名词或代词之后)

   e.g. Every stamp is a picture that has a story to tell.

          Is there anything to drink?

6.作状语

 e.g. I went to the airport to meet my brother.(表目的)

        They were surprised to hear the news. 

     (表原因)

        My daughter isn’t old enough to go to school.

    (表结果)

III  不定式的时态和语态。

以do为例,见下表:

u一般式:to do              to be done

u进行式:to be doing          

u完成式:to have done   to have been done

1.不定式的一般式,表示与谓语动词同时的行为或谓语动词之后的行为。

I want to tell what happened.

2.不定式的进行式,表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。

They seemed to be quarrelling.

3.不定式的完成式,表示动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。

 He is said to have gone abroad.

 I am sorry to have interrupted you.

4.不定式的被动语态:表示被动的含义。

 They asked to be sent to the mountain region to work as teacher.

动名词

I.构成: 肯定形式 doing

               否定形式 not doing

II. 用法:作主语,表语,介词宾语,定语

1.作主语:

    e.g. Smoking will do you harm.

           Getting up early is a good habit.

   注意:It’s no use/good + doing

    e.g. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.

           It’s no good waiting here any longer.

   2. 作表语:

     e.g. His favorite sport is playing tennis.

            Her hobby is dancing.

3.作宾语:

作动词宾语:

有些动词后只能接动名词,常见:

avoid, consider, deny, enjoy, finish, keep, mind,

miss, suggest, delay, postpone, stand, bear…

    

e.g. He enjoyed playing cards.

      I am sorry I missed seeing you while inBeijing.

作介词宾语:

e.g. He often do this without realizing it.

      He is proud of being a student of newChina.

      Are you interested in going to the show?

4.作定语:

    e.g. swimming pool

           waiting room

           teaching method

III. 动名词的时态和语态:

   一般式: doing                being done

   完成式:having done      having been done

 动名词完成式表示动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前。

e.g. I regret not having taken your advice.

      He was praised for having made great progress lin his studies.

uIV. 动名词和不定式的区别

 1. like, hate,等可加动名词,也可加不定式;加动名词表示笼统的概念,加不定式表示具体某一次动作或活动。

   begin, start, 加动名词和不定式区别不大。

   I like dancing very much.

   I like to dance tonight.

   He’ll start working/ to work.

2.有些动词后加动名词表示已经做过的动作,加不定式表示将要做的动作

   1)stop doing /to do

    e.g. He stopped talking.

          He stopped to talk.

   2)I remember posting the letter.

      Please remember to post the letter.

   3)I’ll never forget watching her dancing.

       Don’t forget to write to me.

   4)I regretted having told you the news.

       I regret to say that you fail in the exam.

5)Let’s try solving the math problems.

       We must try to finish the work on time.

6)This means wasting a good chance.

        I mean to tell you on the phone.

VI. 动名词的习惯用法

uIt is no use doing

ucan’t help doing

ufeel like doing

ube busy (in) doing

u have difficulty/trouble/a hard time/fun/a good time (in) doing

uHow/What about doing

uprevent/keep/stop…from doing

uspend time/money (in) doing on sth

ube/get used to doing

ube accustomed to doing

ulook forward to doing

u pay attention to doing

u according to doing

u owing to doing

u thanks to doing

u prefer doing…to doing…

u object to doing…

u devote oneself/one’s time/life…to doing

分词(现在分词和过去分词)

uI 分词的结构:

       现在分词: doing

       过去分词:done

       否定:not +done

II 用法:    现在分词表示主动,动作正在进行;

                过去分词表被动,动作已经完成。

u1.作定语

     e.g. exciting stories               excited spectators

            developing country         developed country

The man driving the car didn’t see the old lady crossing the street.

He wore the new clothes provided by his friends.

u2.作表语:

    e.g. The film is interesting.

            he seemed interested in what was going on around him.    

u3.作宾补:

       带有分词作宾补的动词:

       see, watch, find. hear, feel, get, have…

     e.g. Joe saw his classmate delivering newspaper.

             I am glad to see may book published.

   4. 作状语:

u1)时间状语:

         Living in the countryside, we had few amusements.

         Having made the robot, he wanted to test its powers.

         Seen from a distance, the mountain looks like an elephant.

u2)原因状语:

        Not knowing what to do, the woman telephoned the police.

        Praised by the teacher, he was determined to study harder.

      

u3)条件状语:

 Adding it up, we’ll find the answer.

 Given more time, I could have done it better.

u4)方式,伴随,结果状语:

       We threw our arms around each other, jumping with joy.

      He sailed forEngland, leaving his wife and child behind.

       The teacher sat there, surrounded by his students.

u注意:

          分词短语作状语时,它的逻辑主语必须和主句的主语保持一致。

   e.g.

        Standing at the top ofBaiyunMountain, the whole city ofGZcan be seen.

(wrong)

        

        Standing at the top ofBaiyunMountain, one can see the whole city ofGZ.

(right)

Examples:

uFollowing Tom, we started to climb the mountain.

uOpening the drawer, he took out a box.

uTaking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.

uNot knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.

uBeing unemployed, he hasn’t got much money.

uHearing the news, they all jumped with joy.

uHaving found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.

Examples:

uHaving finished her work, she went home.

uThey’re problem left over by history. 

uSeen from the hill, the city looks magnificent.

uGiven good health, I hope to finish the work this year.

uThey came in, followed by some children.

uDepressed, he went to see his elder sister.

uWhen treated with kindness, he was very amiable.

精选例题

1. __________ with the best students, I still have a long way to go.

     A. Having compared    B. To compare

     C. Compared               D. Compare

 2. The music of the film _________ by him sounds so ___________ .

    A. playing, exciting    B. played, excited

C. playing, excited      D. played, exciting

 

 3. __________ against the coming hurricane, they dared not leave home.

A. Warned       B. Having warned     

   C. To warn       D. Warn

 

4. In __________ countries, you can’t always make yourself _______ by speaking English.

A. English-speaking, understand

   B. English-spoken, understand

C. English-speaking, understood

   D. English-spoken, understood

5. After ______ the old man, the doctor suggested that he ________ a bad cold.

A. examining, should catch

   B. examined, had caught

C. examining, had caught

   D. examined, catch

  6. _____ , Tom jumped into the river and had a good time in it.

A. Be a good swimmer

   B. Being a good swimmer

C. Having been good swimmer

   D. To be a good swimmer

  7. _____ how to read the new words, I often look them up in the dictionary.

A. Having not known      B. Not to know

C. Don’t know                D. Not knowing

  8. As his parent, you shouldn’t have your child __ such a book.

A. read B. to read   C. reading D. be reading

独立分词结构:

        

       分词的逻辑上的主语和主句的主语不一致时,就称为独立分词结构。

    e.g.  Spring coming on, the trees turn green.

           The question settled, we went back to our work.

            It being Sunday, we decided to go for an outing.

            I’ll come, weather permitting.

uIV.分词的时态和语态:

uwrite 为例:

u 现在分词:

u一般式:writing                    being written

u完成式:having written        having been written

u过去分词一般式: written

u1.现在分词的一般式表示的动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生;完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前。

   e.g. They stood at the west end of the bridge, talking and  waiting for the bus.

       Having watered the vegetable, they went home.

       The question being discussed is very important.

        Having been given a map, we found our way home easily.

u2.过去分词只有一般式,表示被动和完成意义。

    e.g. The four other directions shown on the compass are northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest.

强调句

以句型强调:感叹句、it强调句、倒装句

It 强调句:

It is/was +被强调的部分+that/who+原句其他部分。其中that 表事,who表人。

原句: Betty bought a book from the store last night.

强调主语:

It was Betty who bought a book from the store last night.

强调宾语:

 It was the book that Betty bought from the store last night.

强调状语:

 It was from the store that Betty bought a book last night.

强调状语:

 It was last night that Betty bought a book from the store

以短语强调

u at all, in the world, on earth

What on earth are you talking about?

She doesn’t care at all.

以词强调

udo, every, just, only, single, such, very.

She does love to work alone.

I do believe her dream will come true.

This is the very picture on which I spent a lot of money.

从句归纳-反义疑问句

从句是指从属于主句的句子,由从属连词引导充当句子的某个成分,如主语,宾语,表语,同位语,定语,状语等。

根据在句子中的不同作用,从句可分为:

名词性从句(包括主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句)

形容词性从句(即定语从句)

副词性从句(即状语从句)

名词性从句

在句子中起名词作用的各种从句统称为名词性从句。

根据它们在句子中所起的语法作用,这类从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

主语从句:

1.主语从句可以直接放在句首;也可用it作形式主语,而将从句放在句末。

When we shall have our sports meet is still a question.    

It is still a question when we shall have our sports meet.

常见的用it作形式主语的复合句结构:

1)It is + 名词+ that 从句

    It is a fact (a shame, a pity, no wonder,
    good news, …) that …

2)It is + 形容词+ that 从句

    It is necessary (strange, important, 
    wonderful, possible, likely, …) that
    (虚拟)

3) It is+过去分词+that 从句

    It is said (reported, decided, …) +that 从句

4)It +不及物动词+ that 从句

    It seems (happened, doesn’t matter, has
    turned out, …) that

2、 由what引导的主语从句

What I told you is true. 

我告诉你的事是真的。

What I want to know is this.

我想知道的就是这个

关连词what=the thing which (that ),因此以上两个句子可以改为:

The thing which I told you is true.   
The thing that I want to know is this.

注:what引导的主语从句一般不用it作形式主语

It is a book what I want. (误)

What I want is a book.

3、 由that引导的主语从句

that引导的主语从句 that在主语从句中不起句子成分作用,但不能省略,这和that引导宾语从句,不起句子成分作用、可以省略不同。

That she will come tomorrow is certain. (她明天到来是肯定无疑的了。)

由that引导的主语从句大多数要放到句末 ,一般用it作形式主语,因此上句可以改为:

It is certain that she will come tomorrow.

4、 由其他连词引导的主语从句

Where she has gone is not known yet.  (她到哪儿去了还不知道。)

How he became a three-good student is known to us all.
(他怎样成为一个三好学生是众所周知的。)

Why he didn’t come wasn’t quite clear. (他为什么不来还不太清楚。)

注意事项

1、 主语为从句时,谓语动词一般要用单数形式;但如果what引导的从句作主语,代表复数概念(常可从表语上看出)时,谓语动词则常用复数形式。

What we need is water.    
 What we need are useful books.

2、如果带主语从句的句子是疑问式,则须
    用it作形式主语。

Has it been announced when the planes are to take off?

(飞机什么时候起飞宣布了没有?)

3、由whether及其它连词引导的主语从句放在
   句首或句子后部皆可。

Whether he is coming or not doesn’t matter.

It doesn’t matter whether he is coming or not.

4、whether和if都可引导主语从句,但if引导的主语从句不能放在句首。          

宾语从句:

宾语从句的作用相当于一个名词,它可以作动词的宾语,也可作非谓语动词、某些介词和某些形容词的宾语。

He said (that) he would call on his old teacher.
(他说他要去拜访以前的老师。) 作动词宾语

I want to know what has happened to her. (我想知道她发生了什么事。)作不定式宾语

Knowing (that) it is cold today, he put on another clothes.
(知道今天天气冷,他又穿了件衣服。)

作现在分词宾语

I was surprised at what you said.
(你讲的话使我吃惊。)

作介词的宾语

I’m sure that he will be at home to wait for us. (我相信他将在家等我们。)

作形容词宾语

注意事项

1、有些宾语从句前要有间接宾语。

He told me what I should read. 
他告诉我应该读些什么

2.如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语,要使用形式
  宾语it,而将从句放在补足语后面。

I thought it strange that he failed to call me. 
我觉得奇怪:他没给我打电话。

表语从句:

表语从句放在连系动词(be,seem,remain等)后.

The question is who will go there.
问题是谁愿意去那里。

This is how I do it. 

我就是这样做的

The reason was that he fell ill.
原因是他病倒了。

注意事项

1、where, why, because, how等引导的从句作that is和this is的表语时,表示具体的地点、原因、方式等。

This is why we put off the meeting.
这就是我们推迟会议的原因。

That is where he will go.

That was because he fell ill.
这是因为他病倒了

2、主语是reason时,表语从句常用that,不用because

The reason for his absence was that he was ill.
他缺席的原因是病了

3、as,as if,because有时也可引导表语从句:

Things were not as they seemed to be. 情况并不是看上去的那个样子。

It looks as if it is (or: were) going to rain. 天看起来要下雨。

(as if引导的表语从句有时也可用虚拟语气,表示可能性小。)

4、当主句的主语是suggestion,proposal,idea,order,plan等词时,表语从句的谓语

用虚拟语气。

John’s suggestion was that we (should) go to the cinema together.

约翰的建议是我们应该一起去看电影。

同位语从句:

同位语从句跟在一个名词后,对其做进一步的解释:

I had no idea that you were here
我不知道你在这儿。

The fact that he didn’t attend the meeting surprised me.
他没参加会议的事实使我很吃惊

◆同位语从句与定语从句的区别

1、从意义上讲,前者对名词加以补充说明,后者对名词进行修饰和限定

2.定语从句的先行词一般没有特殊性,而同位语从句前的名词往往是以下这些:

belief, fact, hope, idea, doubt, news, rumor, conclusion, evidence, suggestion, problem, order, answer, decision, discovery, explanation, information, opinion, possibility, truth, promise, report, statement

3、从内涵山讲,同位语从句所说明的名词与从句没有逻辑关系,定语从句所限定的名词是从句逻辑上的主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语等。

The news that they won the match is true.  他们比赛获胜的消息是真的

news在从句中不作任何成分,与从句没有逻辑关系。

The news that you told us yesterday is true. 你昨天给我讲的消息是真的。

news 是told 的逻辑宾语

The order when we should return hasn’t reached us.
我们什么时候该返回的命令还未到 。

(order与从句没有逻辑关系)

The day when New China was founded will never be forgotten.
新中国成立的那天永远不会被忘记。
(the day在从句中作状语)

真题回顾

►  ____life could be found on Mars was once believed by scientists. (学位真题2008年6月)

A. What         B. As     C. That          D. While 

►  Contact the police and tell them all     you know about the accident. (学位真题2008年6月)

A. this         B. that   C. what           D. which

►  Her hair was golden when she was a child, but it went darker       she grew up. (学位真题2008年6月)

A. if             B. as          C. since           D. even

答案:B   解析:考察时间状语从句用法。

►  The instructor won’t give them any help _____ absolutely necessary. (学位真题2008年6月)

A. when        B. if         C. unless         D. once

答案:C    解析:考察条件状语从句用法。

►  Many of the people      refused to answer any questions.

A. question     B. questionedC.  questioning    D. were questioned

 答案:B  解析:考察过去分词做定语。

►  The lesson Edwards and Clark learned then is ______ the more down-to-earth guy won. (学位真题2007年11月)

►  A. that          B. what       C. why         D. only

答案:A 解析:考察表语从句用法。

形容词性从句(定语从句):

用来修饰名词、代词、句子等,在句中的作用相当于形容词,故称为形容词性从句。

定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

►限制性定语从句对被修饰词起到限制、修饰的作用,一般不可缺少。

►非限制性定语从句起补充、附带说明作用,缺少也不会影响全句的理解。

定语从句常用关系词

►关系代词:who, whom, whose, that, which, as等(在句中作主、表、宾、定等成分)

►关系副词:where (on which), when (in which), why (for which)(在句中作状语)

►关联词:that(引导表示方式、时间的定语从句)
In this earthquake, the number of people who lost homes reached as many as 250,000.
I have many good friends to whom I am going to send postcards.

1. You’re the only person ____advice he might listen to.

You’re the only person whose advice he might listen to.

2. Potato can be grown in places ____it is too cold to grow rice.

Potato can be grown in places where it is too cold to grow rice.

3. I don’t like the way _____ you treat us.

I don’t like the way (that) you treat us.

定语从句引导词的选择

►取决于先行词(被修饰词)在定语从句中的位置、成分。

     e.g. The people whom\who\that you met in the campus are from Australia.(作宾语)

     This was the time when\at which she left forBeijing.

     The place which he often visits is always full of artists.

使用要点

1. 关系代词在从句中作主语时,不能省略。

e.g. The classroom that is on the fourth floor is poorly equipped.

4. 只用that,不用which的情况:

a.   当先行词有序数词或形容词最高级修饰时;

b.   当先行词前有the only, the very, the last等词修饰时;

c.   当先行词为anything, nothing, something, everything, all, little, much等不定代词修饰时;

d.   当先行词前有all, every, no, some, any, little, much, few等词修饰时;

e.   It is 句型中的引导定语从句时。

f.   当先行词在定语从句中作表语时。

5. 只用which,不用that的情况:

a.   引导非限制性定语从句时;

b.   引导词前有介词时;

c.   一个句子中若有两个定语从句,一个用that引导,另一个用which引导;

     e.g. He bought a book that could give him much knowledge and which could help him to kill the time.

6. 当those作为先行词指人时,通常只能用who引导;

Those who have the interest in history are welcomed to participate in this seminar.

7. as 从句的先行词是the same, such, 或被他们所修饰;多用于表示肯定意义的从句中,不用于表否定意义的从句中。

     e.g. Many of the sports are the same as they were when they started.

     The result was not such as he expected.

     It was raining hard, which (as) was unexpected.

8. 介词+关系代词要根据

a.   谓语动词的固定搭配  e.g. This is the evidence with which the case is connected.

b.   先行词  e.g. I’ll never forget the day on which\when I joined the party.

非限制性定语从句:

限制性定语从句与先行词之间不用逗号隔开;

非限制性定语从句与先行词之间一般用逗号隔开。

My cousin whose father is a teacher wants to be an actor.

My cousin , whose father is a teacher , wants to be an actor.

1.A.This is the place where I lived ten years ago .

 B.She is going to spend the winter holiday inMacao, which returned toChinain 1999.

2.A.He is a man who I can ask for help.

  B.His father , who works inBeijing, came back yesterday

His father, who works inBeijing, came back yesterday.

当先行词是地名人名、世界上独一无二的事物或家庭唯一成员时,通常只用非限制性定语从句。

Shanghai, which is inEast China,is developing rapidly.

He missed the show, which was a great pity.

 He invited me to dinner, which made me happy.

非限制性定语从句中关系代词which/as可指整个主句的意思或一部分意思。As引导的定语从句既可以位于句末,也可以位于句首或句中。

As everyone knows,Chinais a country with a long history.

正如大家所知,中国是一个有着悠久历史的国家。

She is a teacher, as is clear from her manner.

她是位教师,这一点从她的举止可以清楚地看出。

典型例题

Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, _____, of course, made the others envy(嫉妒) him. 

   A. who           B. that    C. what          D. which

Carol said the work would be done by October, _____ personally I doubt very much.

        A. it                B. that   C. when           D. which

非限制性定语从句中通常使用下列关系代词和副词

关系代词:which / who / whom / whose /as  

关系副词:when / where

(非限制性定语从句中不用关系词that;非限制性定语从句中关系词不能省略)

Other examples

1.I am doing different types of exercises, all of __which__are quite helpful to my health.

2.Many people , some of ___whom___are not overweight , are going on diets.

3.There are 54 students in my class, three of _ whom____come from US.

在of which/whom之前可以使用表达数量或定位的数词或代词。

典型例题

1. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% ________ are sold abroad.

A. of which     B. which of    C. of them      D. of that

2. The English play _______ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success.

 A. for which      B.at which      C. in which       D. on which

3. There were dirty marks on her trousers _______ she had wiped(抹,擦) her hands.

    A. where           B. which     C. when             D. that

4. I have many friends, some ___ are businessmen.

     A. why          B. from which      C. who of      D. of whom

5. If a shop has chairs _______ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop.       

A. that            B. which   C. when         D. where

6. I walked in our garden, ____ Tom and Jim were tying(捆绑) a big sign onto one of the trees.       

      A. which       B. when    C. where          D. that

7. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer what it was 20 years ago, ______ it was so poorly equipped.

       A. when       B. which   C. what        D. that

8.  Jim passed the driving test, _______ surprised everybody in the office.

     A. which         B. that       C. this             D. it

指出下列各从句的类型

v I believe that everything is going on well.   ---宾语从句

v She was reading a novel when I came in.    ---状语从句

v She is the girl who sings best in my class.    ---定语从句

反义疑问句

1. 陈述部分带有否定词,疑问部分为肯定式。如:few, hardly, little, never, no, nobody, nothing, rarely, scarcely, seldom

     You found nobody to help you, ___ ___?

     You found nobody to help you, did you?

2. 陈述部分的谓语是wish,疑问部分是may+主语

    I wish to do something for you, ___ ____?

    I wish to do something for you, may I? 

3. 陈述部分的谓语是have/have to do, 疑问部分为don’t +主语

    I have to get the ticket four days ahead, don’t I?

4. 陈述部分谓语是must, 疑问部分则根据实际情况来定。

You must be thirsty, ___ ___?

You must be thirsty, aren’t you?

He must have drunk a lot of beer last night, ____ ___?

He must have drunk a lot of beer last night, didn’t you?

She must be going to be promoted, ___ ___?

She must be going to be promoted, won’t she?

Mike must have finished his homework, ___ ____?

Mike must have finished his homework, hasn’t he?

 

5. 如果陈述部分是由believe, expect, imagine, think等词引导宾语从句,疑问部分动词以从句中的谓语动词而定,否定与肯定则与主句相反。

 

I can’t imagine how pretty she is, ___ ___?

I can’t imagine how pretty she is, is she?

 

I expect he enjoys the party, ____ ____?

I expect he enjoys the party, doesn’t he?

 

She never believes her dream will come true, ___ __?

She never believes her dream will come true, will it?

 

 

6. 如果陈述部分是祈使句,疑问部分应用shall, will, 或won’t。

Have more coffee, won’t you?

Don’t be so impatient, will you?

 

7. Let起始的反义疑问句,疑问部分用shall we, will you或won’t you。

Let’s do it, shall we?

Let us do it, will you?

 

8. 陈述部分以there be起始,疑问部分用be there反问。

There is no water in the glass, is there?

There will be problems to be solved, won’t there?

 

9. 陈述部分是感叹句,疑问部分用动词否定式。

What a big house, ___ ___?

What a big house, isn’t it?

What a big house!=What a big house it is!

 

How hard he tried, ___ ___?

How hard he tried, didn’t he?

10. 陈述部分的主语为不定代词someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, nobody时,疑问部分的主语用代词they。

Nobody called me while I was out, ____ ____?

Nobody called me while I was out, did they?

Everybody is excited at the great news, ___ ___?

Everybody is excited at the great news, aren’t they?

真题回顾

1. You never told us his phone number, _______?

     A. hadn't you     B. didn't you     C. had you       D. did you

2. I don't think you've heard of him before, ________?

     A. don't I      B. do I       C. have you        D. haven't you

3. Mountains can be very dangerous, ________?

     A. can't they    B. aren't they    C. don't they    C. won't they

4. "Jill has a toothache."

     "It's been hurting her for quite a while, _______?"

     A. isn't it    B. doesn't it      C. wasn't it          D. hasn't it

5. Beginners have to learn from their mistakes, _______ they?

     A. haven't       B. mustn't       C. don't          D. aren't

 learn from 从……学到

6. "It's awfully cold this morning."

     "Yes, but it's not colder than it was yesterday, _____ it?"

     A. wasn't       B. isn't      C. is         D. was

7. Let's try a bit harder, _______?

     A. will we     B. shall we       C. do we         D. are we

时态&语态

l汉语的时态大多是通过副词来表达的,而英语的时态是靠动词的变化时间状语来表达的。

l学位ope体育专业版会考察现在时,过去时,将来时,进行时,完成时等时态,其中完成时出现的频率最高。

l掌握英语的时态和语态,必须掌握好助动词和时间状语这两个核心要素。

1、一般现在时 :

u表示人、事物的现在的状况和特点;

u表示人、事物经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time,usually 等时间状语;

u表示客观规律和永恒真理等。

lHe usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning.

lKnowledge is power.

lThe earth goes around the sun.

lGuangzhouis situated in the south ofChina.

l考点一:表示永恒的真理,即使出现在过去的语境中,仍用一般现在时。

   I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in primary school.

l考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时;常用的引导词有:

   时间状语从句中常用的引导词:when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment/the minute, the day;

   条件状语从句中常用的引导词:if, unless

    If he accepts the job, he will get more money soon.

l考点三:在the+比较级… the+比较级 … 句型中, 若主句是一般将来时, 从句通常用一般现在时。

   The harder you study, the better results you will get.

— What would you do if it _____ tomorrow?

— We have to carry it on ,since we’ve got everything ready.

A. rain     B. rains    C. will rain   D. is raining

解析:if引导条件状语从句,在条件状语从句中要用一般现在时表示将来。

2、现在进行时

表示此时此刻正在发生的动作或现阶段正在进行的活动;

表示感情色彩,加强语气。

We are having English class now.

The house is being built these days.

l考点一:与频率副词,如always,constantly,continually,again等连用,表示说话人的某种感情色彩(赞叹、厌烦、埋怨等)。

   The little boy is always making mistakes.

l考点二:在时间状语或条件状语从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。

   Look out when you are crossing the street.

   Don't wake him up if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning.

3、完成时(通过考察现在完成时,现在完成进行时,过去完成时,过去完成进行时和将来完成时

u现在完成时(have+done:表示动作发生在过去,对现在仍有影响。常与already, yet, recently, lately 或频度副词often, never, ever, seldom, twice 等连用。

   I have studied English for 15 years.

    We have been to the Great Wall many times.

    He hasn’t translated the novel yet.

l考点一for + 时间段;since + 时间点

They have lived inBeijingfor five years.

They have lived inBeijingsince 2004.

I have learned English for ten years.

l考点二:当出现“最近几世纪/ 年/ 月以来”的时间状语时,谓语动词常用现在完成时。

in the past few years/months/weeks/days;

over the past few years;

during the last three months;

for the last few centuries;

Scientists have made a lot of efforts to protect our environment in the past few years.

考点三:在以下两个句式中常使用现在完成时。

uIt is the best (worst/most interesting ) +名词 +that…

uThis is the first (second) time that…

This is my first time (that) I have visited China.

It is the most interesting film I have ever seen.

This is the second time that he has broken a cup.

 

她是我认识的最成功的女人。

She is the most successful woman I have ever known.

1、I bought a new house last year, but I ___ my old house yet, so at the moment I have two houses.

A. didn’t sell             B. have not sold

C. had not sold        D. don’t sell

2、—The window is dirty.  

— I know. It ______ for weeks.

A. hasn’t cleaned     B. didn’t clean  

C. wasn’t cleaned    D. hasn’t been cleaned

解析:该题是根据交际情景中考查动词时态与语态。关键词for weeks,考虑现在完成时,表示到目前为止的结果,好几周不擦了;窗户与擦的关系是被动关系,故被动语态。句意;“窗户很脏了。”“我知道。好几周没有擦了。

u现在完成进行时(have been doing):表示过去某一时刻发生的动作,一直延续到现在,并且还可能继续下去。

现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别如下:

 现在完成时强调的是动作的完成,而现在完成进行时是持续了一段时间的动作,这个动作刚停止或仍在继续,强调动作的延续性。

lI have written an article.(已完成)     

lI have been writing an article. (还在写)

Now that she is out of a job, Lucy ____going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet.

A. had considered  

B. has been considering  

C. considered

D. is going to consider

解析:该题是在交际情境中考查动词时态的用法。根据句意应选完成进行时,表示过去的动作(考虑返校学习)持续到现在(还没有决定)今后还有可能进行的动作。句意:既然露西失业了,她一直在考虑返校读书,但她还没有定下来。

u过去完成时(had+done):表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作,即过去完成时的动作发生在“过去的过去”,句中有明显的参照动作或时间状语(by, before, until),这种时态不孤立使用 .

lThere had been 25 parks in our city up till 2000.

lBy the end of last term we had finished the book.

lThey finished earlier than we had expected.

考点一:把过去完成时放在by + 时间点或by the time + 从句的句子里考查。

By the end of last year,  another new hospital ___ inBeijing.

would be established  

was being established

has been established

had been established

考点二:用于hardly/scarcely...when; no sooner ...than 句型中,主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。

I had hardly finished my work when he came to see me.

I had no sooner got into the room than it began to snow.

No sooner had I got into the room than it began to snow.(倒装)

No sooner had I arrived home than the telephone rang.

l考点三:表示“第几次做某事”,主句用过去时,从句用过去完成时。

lThat was the second time that she had seen her grandfather.

l考点四:动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan 用过去完成时,表示未实现的愿望、打算和意图。

lI had intended to see you but I was too busy.

lI had hoped that I could do the job.

u将来完成时(will/shall+have done):表示将来某个时间之前会发生或者可能完成的事情,常于by, before, when等介词或连词引导的表示将来的时间短语或从句连用。

When we get there they'll probably have left.

By the end of this centuryChinawill have become one of the strongest and wealthiest country in the world.

考点一:当出现下列时间状语(by+将来的时间:如by the end of this year, by 8 o’clock this evening, by March next year以及由by the time…, before或when等引导的副词从句),主句常使用将来完成时态。

lBy the time you reach the station, the train will have left.

lBy next Tuesday, I will have got ready for the exams.

完成时态例题:

By the time the course ends, ______ a lot about the culture of this country.

A. we’ll learn            B. we are learning

C. we have learnt     D. we’ll have learnt

  4.一般过去时:由动词的过去式构成,表示在过去某个特定时间发生且完成的动作,或过去习惯性动作,不强调对现在的影响,只说明过去。

  常与明确的过去时间连用,如:yesterday; last week; in 1945, at that time; once; during the war; before; a few days ago; when等。

I got home at 9 o’clock last night.

I got the Master Degree in 2009.

考点一:used to + do,表示过去经常发生但现在已不再存在的动作或习惯。

lHe used to smoke a lot.

lHe has got used to getting up early.

   注意区别:

   be/become/get used to + doing,表示习惯做某事。

考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替过去将来时。

lHe promised to buy me a computer if he got a raise.

考点三:考查现在完成时一般过去式区别

   一般过去时着重说明动作发生的时间、地点、方式等,与现在不发生联系,且句中一般有表示过去的时间状语;而现在完成时强调对现在有影响。

lHello, I ____ you were inLondon. How long ____ here?

A. don’t know; were you   

B. hadn’t known; are you  

C. haven’t known; are   

D. didn’t know; have you been

5. 过去进行时:表示过去某个时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。

lThe boy was doing his homework when his father came back from work.

lWhat were you doing at nine last night?

lThe radio was being repaired when you called me.

例:Shirely____a book aboutChinalast year but I don’t know whether she has finished it.

A. has written      B. wrote    C. had written     D. was writing

l解析:根据I don’t know whether she has finished it可判断去年她应该一直在写。该题测试过去时间状语与过去进行时态在英语句式中的特殊用法。分析上下文语境可知,选项部分的谓语动词的动作并非在过去某一时间已经完成,而是指在过去某一时间正在进行,故应选过去进行时。注意:在这一句式结构中,只有延续性动词才可与过去时间状语用于过去进行时,强调在过去某一时间正在进行的动作。

6. 一般将来时:表示在将来某个时间会发生的动作或情况。常和tomorrow, next year, in 2020等表示将来的时间状语连用。

lTokyowill host the Summer Olympic Games in 2020.

lI will go to the library tomorrow.

考点一:某些表示短暂性动作的动词如arrive, come, go, leave, start等,用现在进行时形式表示将来。

lI am leaving forBeijingtomorrow.

考点二:“祈使句 + and/or + 句子”,这种结构中and后面的句子谓语用一般将来时。

lUse your head and you will find a way.

lCall the university operator, ____ you will find the phone number of Professor Smith.

A. so        B. and       C. when         D. before

l考点三:“be (am, is, are) going to + do”,表示打算要做的事或可能要发生的事,也可表示说话人的意图和打算。

lWe are going toParisnext summer.

l“be about to + do”表示按照预定计划或打算准备着手进行的动作。

lThe train is about to leave.

l“be to + do”表示必须、必然或计划将要做的事。

lThey are to be married in this May.

动词的语态:

l语态有两种:主动、被动语态。

l主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,而被动语态表示主语是动作的承受着,一般用于强调接受者。

l动词的语态一般不单独考,而是和时态、或非谓语动词一起考。

l要注意以下考点:

l考点一:不及物动词或短语不能用于被动语态

   come true, take place, keep silence, lose heart, happen, become, rise, occur, appear, die, disappear, end, fail, last, exist, fail, succeed…

lIt took place before liberation.

lThe film lasts for 2 hours.

lWe cannot say for sure what will happen.

lWe can't exist without air.

l考点二:下列动词的主动语态表示被动意义, 常与well, quite, easily, badly等副词连用。主语通常为物,且具有某种内在的特点。如:lock, wash, sell, read, wear, blame, ride, smell, write…

l玻璃容易破碎。

lGlass breaks easily.

l这箱子很好锁。

lThe case locks easily.

l这本书很畅销。

lThe book sells well.

l这窗户关不上。

lThe window won’t shut.

l这种纸一撕就破。

lThis paper tears easily.

考点三:一些常用经典被动句型:

lIt is said…,

lIt is reported…,

lIt is widely believed…,

lIt is expected…,

lIt is estimated…,

lIt is well known…

lIt is said that Tom has passed CET 4.

lIt is well known that Nobel Prize is one of the  highest international honors.

考点四:need/want/require/worth 后面接doing时,表示的是被动意义。

lneed doing= need to be done

lYour hair needs cutting.=Your hair needs to be cut.

lThe book is really worth reading.

lYou ought to have put the milk in the refrigerator, now ____sour.
A) I smell                B) it is smelt
C) it smells             D) it is smelling

lHe does not possess a bicycle, this one he uses ____to Peter.
A) is belonged to          B) belonged
C) belongs                   D) is belonging

l解析:考察侧重点为动词主动形式表被动意义。

lIn Chinese mainland, a great number of colleges and universities ____since 1949.

A) has been establish

B) have been established

C) have established

D) had been established

l—What else did you do this morning besides doing the shopping?

l—Two hours ____ washing the windows and floor.

lA. were taken                B. was spent   

lC. has taken                  D. will be spent

l解析:时态、语态、主谓一致、动词用法的综合考察。

l It is ten years since women           to vote in theUnited States.

lA. was allowing 

lB. allowed     

lC. were allowed   

lD.  had been allowed

l解析:考察点是语态和时态的结合,首先确认语态(妇女被允许投票),通过时态标志词since确认时间从句为时间点,时态为应为一般过去时。可采用“同形项”原则排除B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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