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点击数:34012019/2/12 23:27:31 来源: 广东专插本辅导网

一、时态和语态

 

1. 如何解答时态问题

  1Youve already missed too many classes this term. You ______ just

last week. 

A. missed  B. would miss  C. had missed  D. have missed

  2Anne asked Tom ______ the key. 

A. when he left  B. where he had left C. how he left

 D. why did he left

 

考试重点

2. 与完成时

有关的时态

  ★现在完成时 (have done)   since, for/ in the past few months, up to

now

  1Collecting

toy cars as a hobby becomes

 increasingly

 popular during

the past

fifty years. 

A                       B       C                      D

  2English ______ in a new way at my college in the past few years. 

A. has been taught     B. was being taught    

C. has been taught     D. had been taught. 

  ★过去完成时 (had done)

3Anne asked Tom ______ the key. 

A. when he left  B. where he had left C. how he left

 D. why did he left

4The chemistry class_____ for five minutes when we hurried there. 

A. had been on  B. had begun  C. has been on 

 D. would began

  ★将来完成时 (will have done)   by

5Were late I expect the film_____ by the time we get to the cinema. 

A. had already started     B. have already

C. will already have started    D. have already been started. 

  ★现在完成进行时 (have been doing)

6It seems oil ___________ from this pipe for some time. We'll have

to take the machine apart to put it right.

A. had leaked  B. is leaking   C. leaked   D. has

been leaking

  ★过去完成进行时 (had been doing)

  

     将来完成进行时(will have been doing )

7By the time you arrive this evening, _______for two hours. 

A. I will study   B. I will have been studied 

C. I had studied  D. I will have been studying.

3. 在时间和条件状语从句中不用将来时态

▲用一般现在时代替一般将来时

1When the mixture_____, it will give off a powerful force. 

A. will heat  B. will be heated  C. is heated  D. has

heated

  2please be sure to telephone me the next time you ______. 

A. will come  B. would come  C. shall come  D. come

▲用现在完成时代替将来完成时

3Smith is to study medicine as soon as he_______ military service. 

A. will finish  B. has finished  C. finish  D.

would finish

注意

4No one can be sure if the car on display fits him or her until

he or she______ them. 

      A. tries  B. will try  C. are trying  D. have tried

4. 考试小窍门

◆考试中如果遇到与完成时态相关的选项要重点加以研读一般说来是正确答

案。

 

 

 二、情态动词

 

1. 几个情态动词的否定式的含义

can

may not

mustnt

need

2. 表示推测的几个情态动词用法

must表示肯定的推测意思是“一定”

              +do         对现在情况的推测

must

           +have done   对过去情况的推测

   

1I ________ asleep in the corner, for I remember nothing of what

happened during the night

A. might fall  B. must fall  C. must have fallen

 D. can have fallen 

 

cant/couldt表示否定的推测意思是“不可能”

                     +do         对现在情况的推测   

cant/couldnt

                   +have done   对过去情况的推测

 

may/might not表示可能性很小的推测意思是“也许„”

                +do         对现在情况的推测   

may/might

               +have done   对过去情况的推测

3. 情态动词的完成时虚拟语气的用法

 

neednt have done

should have done

should not have done

ought to have done

could have done 

 

4. 考试小窍门

在遇到情态动词加完成时和情态动词加原形同时出现的情况下一般说来情态动

词加完成时是正确答案。

× Must do 

Must have done 

三、虚拟语气

考试重点

1. 条件句中的虚拟语气

例I would ask George to lend us the money if I ______ him. 

A. had known  B. have known  C. knew  D. would

know 

 

例If a better material ______, the strength of the part would have

been increased. 

A. had been used  B. had been using  C. being used

 D. using

条件句中的虚拟语气需要注意以下三点

 

? 如果条件句中有were, had, should时可以把if省略然后把这三个单词

提前形成倒装。

3_____ the advice of his friends, he would not have suffered such

a heavy loss in his business.

 A. If he took  B. if he should take  

C. Were he to take D. Had he taken

 

? 含蓄条件句中虚拟语气的应用

三级考试中经常出现的三个句型

But for/without„„„

„„, otherwise/or

„„, but/though.

例But for your help, I _____ the work in time. 

  A. did not finish  B. could not finish

  A. will not finish  D. would not have finished

例Without electricity, human life _____ quite different today.

A. is  B. will be  C. would have been   D. would

be

例He was very busy yesterday; otherwise he_____ to the meeting.

A. would have come B. would come C. could come  D. had

come

 例We would have made a lot of money, but we    

halfway

    A. gave up  B. had given up C.would give up D. were to

give up

 

? 错综时间条件句

 例If I were you, I would not have missed the film last night.

 

2. (should )+动词原形在某些从句中的应用

(1)当宾语从句从的谓语是suggest, request, insist, desire , demand,

propose, order, command, arrange等动词时,

例I suggested that we should go there on foot. 

注意:insist表示坚持认为之意时, 不用虚拟语气,用陈述语气.

例The man insisted that he had never stolen the money 

 ( 2) It is ordered/desired/decided/requested/strange/important/natural/

等后的主语从句中 

例It is desired that we should get everything ready tonight 

( 3) advice, idea, order, plan, demand, proposal, suggestion, request

等名词之后的表语从句和同位语从句中.

例My suggestion is that we should hold a meeting this evening

 

3. wish后的宾与从句中应当用虚拟语气

4. if only 引导的感叹句中

5. as if/as though引导的状语从句中

6. would rather后的句子的虚拟语气谓语动词用过去式

7. it is (high) time that .句型中, 从句的谓语动词用过去式 

 

四、非谓语动词

1. 不定式

?不定式的逻辑主语

 例The road is wild enough for cars to pass by. 

 例It is important for you to work hard. 

 例It is kind of you to help me. 

 

?不定式的时态和语态

 例The magnificent museum is said _____ about a hundred years ago.

    A. to be built  B. to have been built

    C. to have built  D. to have being built

 

?使用不带to的不定式

1)why not do表示委婉的建议

例Why not_____Professor Li for help? He is kind-hearted and willing

to help.

    A. ask  B. you ask  C. to ask  D. your asking

 

2)使役动词have, make, let的后面接不定式做宾语补足语时用省to的不定

式。

例The teacher has the students _____ a composition every other

week. 

   A. to write  B. written   C. writing  D. write

例While he was climbing the high mountain, he had his leg_____

   A. broke  B. break  C. broken  D. breaking 

例There was so much noise that the speaker couldnt make

himself_____

  A. hearing  B. being told  C. to hear   D. heard

 

3)表示生理感觉的动词如see, watch, notice, observe, hear后面接不定式做

宾语补足语时用省to的不定式。

 例With tears on her face, the old lady watched the little boy_____

to a hospital. 

    A. send  B. to be sent  C. being sent  D. sending

4)do something but/except do

 例There is nothing we can do _____ wait.

    A. but  B. rather than   C. in spite of  C.

besides.

5)记住下列不带to的短语

  cant but

  cant help but

  had better

2. 动名词

1.       有些动词后面既可以接动名词又可以接不定式但意思有差异

remember 

forget

regret 

stop

go on 

mean 

2. 后面跟动名词的固定句式

have trouble/problems/difficult doing something

feel like

spend/wastedoing something

cant help

need/deserve/want

be worth

what about/how about

3. 分词

 

分词作表语

独立主格结构

1During the discussion

, Mr Boyd remained

 silent when

 asking

 his

opinion. 

             A                    B           C    D

2Your experiment reports must be checked with care before_______

A. handed them in    B. them handing in    C. being handed in    D.

handing them in

 

例_______ in the air fuels give off heat. 

 A. T burn     B. Burned    C. T be burned    D. Being burned

五、状语从句

赵文通

考试重点

1 时间状语从句

     while/

when/

as/

until

     一„就„

no soonerthan/

hardlywhen/

scarcelywhen

     the moment

the minute

the instant

     固定句型

It is/has been .since

 

1. 原因状语从句

now that 

in that

 

2. 条件状语从句

unless

   as long as

   provided that

3. 让步状语从句

as

though

although

even if

even though

while

whatever

  六、平行结构

and, or, but

Prefer引出的平行结构

Prefer something to something

Prefer doing something to doing something

Prefer to do something rather than do something

Prefer的特殊用法

Prefer somebody to do something

e.g : I prefer you to speak English in the class. 

1a number of, the number of

   a number of +可数名词谓语用复数意为许多大量的„„

   the number of +可数名词谓语用单数意为„„的数目

 

2able, capable, competent

 able为常用词指具有做某事所需的力量技巧知识与时间等搭配是

be able to do s.th。如A cat is able to see in the dark. 猫在黑

暗中能看见东西。

 capable 指满足一般要求的能力搭配是be capable of +doing

competent 指“胜任”“合格”或受过专业技术等训练的但不是超群

的能力。如A doctor should be competent to treat many diseases. 医

生应该能治多种病。

3above allafter allat all; in all

above all意为“尤其是”、“首先”、“最重要的是”常位于句首或句中

作插入语起强调作用。如 

But above all tell me quickly what I have to do可首先快些告诉我该

做什么。 

 

after all意为“毕竟”、“终究”、“终归”、“到底”在句中位置较灵活。

可位于句首、句中或句末。如After allyour birthday is only two weeks away毕竟两周后就是你

的生日。 

He isafter alla small child他毕竟还是个小孩子。 

He failed after all他终于失败了。 

at all用于否定句时意为“丝毫根本”用于疑问句时意为“究竟到底”

用于条件句时常译为“当真实在”。用于肯定句中表示说话人的某种情绪

或情感如怀疑或惊奇等意为“竟然”等。如 

 

He doesnt like you at all他根本不喜欢你。 

Are you going to do it at all你究竟做不做这件事 

If you do it at alldo it well若你真要做这件事就得做好。 

I was surprised at his coming at all他竟然来了我很惊讶。 

in all意为“总共”既可放在句首也可放在句末。如 

There are 25,000 Inuit in all(In all, there are 25,000 Inuit)

这儿共有25,000因努伊特人。 

4aboard, abroad, board, broad

aboard 在船或飞机车上。如I never went aboard a ship.

abroad 副词在国外或海外。如He often goes abroad.

board 为动词上船飞机车。如The passengers are boarding the

plane now.

broad 为形容词宽广的。如He has very broad shoulders.

5accept, receive

accept 接受receive“接到”“收到”。如I received an invitation

yesterday, but I didnt accept it. 昨天我收到了一个请柬但并没

有接受邀请。

6accident, incident, event

   accident事故。如a traffic accident 交通事故

   incident“附带事件”在政治上特指引起国际争端或战争的事件事变。

   event “事件”指特别重要的事件通常是由以前的努力而产生的结果

也指国家和社会的事件。

7-accurate, correct, exact, precise

accurate准确的精确的。如Clocks in railway stations should be

accurate.火车站的钟应该是准确的。

correct“正确的”指符合一定的标准或准则含有“无错误的”意味。它

的反义词是incorrect, wrong.

exact“精确的”“恰好的”比“大体上正确”更进一步表“丝毫不

差”。它的反义词是inexact

precise强调“精确”“精密”。

8accuse, charge, sue

accuse 指责指控常与of 搭配。如His bossaccused him of

carelessness.

charge 常与with搭配。如The police charged the driver with reckless

driving.

sue 常与for 搭配。如Smith sued his neighbor for damaging his house

9acquire, require, inquire

acquire取得获得学到。如acquire knowledge 获得知识

inquire打听询问。如inquire a persons name问一个人的姓名

require需要。如We require more help. 我们需要更多的帮助。

 

10adopt, adapt

adopt 收养。如Since they have no children of their own, they

decided to adopt a little girl. 他们自己没有孩子所以决定收养一

个小女孩。采纳采用通过。如He adopted our suggestion.

他采纳了我们的建议。

adoptadapt词形相近后者的意思是“使适合”“改编”等。

 

 

11advantage, benefit, profit

advantage 常指一种使某人处于比其他人相对有利的地位机会或时机。

如He had the advantage of good education. 受过良好的教育对他十

分有利。

profit 多指报偿或报偿性的收入。如Did you make any profit last year?

你去年赚钱了吗

benefit 指物质利益或精神方面的好处。如I get no personal benefit from

the business.我个人从这家企业中并不获益。

121affect, effect

affect影响动词。如Smoking affects health.

effect效果影响名词。如Government policy will not have any effect

on us.

13afford, provide, supply

    都有“提供供给”的意思。

afford一般只用于抽象事物。

provide supply意思相同两个词都和with连用构成provide /supply

somebody with something的结构。

14ago, before

ago表示以现在为起点的“以前”常与一般过去时连用不可以单独使用。

before指过去或将来的某时刻“以前”也可泛指以前常和完成时连用

可以单独使用。

  例如I saw him ten minutes ago.我十分钟之前看到的他。

  He told me that he had seen the film before.他告诉我他以前看过

这场电影。

15agree onagree toagree with

 agree on作“就„„取得一致意见”解。例如 

The building of a new car factory was agreed on last month 

上月就建一座新汽车厂之事达成了协议。 

 agree to有两层含义和用法

其一是to作为动词不定式符号其后跟动词原形作“同意答应做某事”

解。

 

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